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保证linux登陆密码的质量

检查现有密码的质量

使用 pwscore 命令能够给密码进行打分,Archlinux中这个命令在 libpwquality 这个包中

sudo pacman -S libpwquality --noconfirm
resolving dependencies...
looking for conflicting packages...

Packages (1) libpwquality-1.4.0-1

Total Installed Size:  0.37 MiB

:: Proceed with installation? [Y/n] 
(0/1) checking keys in keyring                     [----------------------]   0%
(1/1) checking keys in keyring                     [######################] 100%
(0/1) checking package integrity                   [----------------------]   0%
(1/1) checking package integrity                   [######################] 100%
(0/1) loading package files                        [----------------------]   0%
(1/1) loading package files                        [######################] 100%
(0/1) checking for file conflicts                  [----------------------]   0%
(1/1) checking for file conflicts                  [######################] 100%
(0/1) checking available disk space                [----------------------]   0%
(1/1) checking available disk space                [######################] 100%
:: Processing package changes...
(1/1) installing libpwquality                      [----------------------]   0%
(1/1) installing libpwquality                      [######################] 100%
Optional dependencies for libpwquality
    python2: Python bindings [installed]
:: Running post-transaction hooks...
(1/1) Arming ConditionNeedsUpdate...

安装之后就能用它来检查密码强度了:

echo "1234567" |pwscore 2>&1 || exit 0
密码质量检查失败:
密码少于 8 个字符
echo "selective" |pwscore 2>&1 || exit 0
密码质量检查失败:
密码未通过字典检查 - ?????????????????????
echo "djTdysi87" |pwscore 2>&1 || exit 0
43

设置密码要求

我们可以通过修改 /etc/security/pwquality.conf 来修改密码的质量要求。

cat /etc/security/pwquality.conf
# Configuration for systemwide password quality limits
# Defaults:
#
# Number of characters in the new password that must not be present in the
# old password.
# difok = 1
#
# Minimum acceptable size for the new password (plus one if
# credits are not disabled which is the default). (See pam_cracklib manual.)
# Cannot be set to lower value than 6.
# minlen = 8
#
# The maximum credit for having digits in the new password. If less than 0
# it is the minimum number of digits in the new password.
# dcredit = 0
#
# The maximum credit for having uppercase characters in the new password.
# If less than 0 it is the minimum number of uppercase characters in the new
# password.
# ucredit = 0
#
# The maximum credit for having lowercase characters in the new password.
# If less than 0 it is the minimum number of lowercase characters in the new
# password.
# lcredit = 0
#
# The maximum credit for having other characters in the new password.
# If less than 0 it is the minimum number of other characters in the new
# password.
# ocredit = 0
#
# The minimum number of required classes of characters for the new
# password (digits, uppercase, lowercase, others).
# minclass = 0
#
# The maximum number of allowed consecutive same characters in the new password.
# The check is disabled if the value is 0.
# maxrepeat = 0
#
# The maximum number of allowed consecutive characters of the same class in the
# new password.
# The check is disabled if the value is 0.
# maxclassrepeat = 0
#
# Whether to check for the words from the passwd entry GECOS string of the user.
# The check is enabled if the value is not 0.
# gecoscheck = 0
#
# Whether to check for the words from the cracklib dictionary.
# The check is enabled if the value is not 0.
# dictcheck = 1
#
# Whether to check if it contains the user name in some form.
# The check is enabled if the value is not 0.
# usercheck = 1
#
# Whether the check is enforced by the PAM module and possibly other
# applications.
# The new password is rejected if it fails the check and the value is not 0.
# enforcing = 1
#
# Path to the cracklib dictionaries. Default is to use the cracklib default.
# dictpath =

从中可以看到很多配置项,比如 minlen 设定了密码长度最少不能少于多少位