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如何查看进程的内存占用量

ps命令

严格来说,ps命令只能看到进程内存占用的百分比。

比如下面命令可以列出最耗内存的10个进程,并将所有进程按照内存占用量从高到底排序:

ps -o pid,user,%mem,command ax |sort -k3 -brn |head
2005 lujun99+ 17.8 /usr/lib/firefox/firefox
2066 lujun99+ 17.4 /usr/lib/firefox/firefox -contentproc -childID 1 -isForBrowser -prefsLen 24973 -schedulerPrefs 0001,2 -parentBuildID 20180905135451 -greomni /usr/lib/firefox/omni.ja -appomni /usr/lib/firefox/browser/omni.ja -appdir /usr/lib/firefox/browser 2005 true tab
2118 lujun99+ 11.6 /usr/lib/firefox/firefox -contentproc -childID 2 -isForBrowser -prefsLen 24973 -schedulerPrefs 0001,2 -parentBuildID 20180905135451 -greomni /usr/lib/firefox/omni.ja -appomni /usr/lib/firefox/browser/omni.ja -appdir /usr/lib/firefox/browser 2005 true tab
2425 lujun99+  9.7 /usr/lib/firefox/firefox -contentproc -childID 3 -isForBrowser -prefsLen 28794 -schedulerPrefs 0001,2 -parentBuildID 20180905135451 -greomni /usr/lib/firefox/omni.ja -appomni /usr/lib/firefox/browser/omni.ja -appdir /usr/lib/firefox/browser 2005 true tab
2435 lujun99+  9.0 /usr/lib/firefox/firefox -contentproc -childID 4 -isForBrowser -prefsLen 28794 -schedulerPrefs 0001,2 -parentBuildID 20180905135451 -greomni /usr/lib/firefox/omni.ja -appomni /usr/lib/firefox/browser/omni.ja -appdir /usr/lib/firefox/browser 2005 true tab
1743 lujun99+  5.9 awesome
1218 lujun99+  5.4 /usr/bin/emacs --fg-daemon
1792 lujun99+  2.3 java -ea -client -Dfile.encoding=UTF-8 -Xmx320M -XX:MinHeapFreeRatio=20 -XX:MaxHeapFreeRatio=40 -Dlog4j.defaultInitOverride=true -Djava.util.logging.config.file=/opt/nutstore/conf/java.logging.properties -Dnutstore.config.dir=/opt/nutstore/conf -Dnutstore.x64=True -Djava.library.path=/opt/nutstore/lib/native -cp /opt/nutstore/lib/guava-r07.jar:/opt/nutstore/lib/rdiff-java-0.1.0.jar:/opt/nutstore/lib/log4j-1.2.15.jar:/opt/nutstore/lib/jackson-mapper-asl-1.9.13.jar:/opt/nutstore/lib/juds-0.95-osx.jar:/opt/nutstore/lib/nutstore_client-3.4.4.jar:/opt/nutstore/lib/annotations.jar:/opt/nutstore/lib/commons-codec-1.4.jar:/opt/nutstore/lib/commons-cli-1.2.jar:/opt/nutstore/lib/sqlite4java.jar:/opt/nutstore/lib/inotify-java-2.0.2.jar:/opt/nutstore/lib/jackson-core-asl-1.9.13.jar:/opt/nutstore/lib/commons-collections4-4.1.jar:/opt/nutstore/lib/jsr305-3.0.1.jar:/opt/nutstore/lib/swt.jar nutstore.client.gui.NutstoreGUI --restart 1
1467 lujun99+  1.3 /usr/lib/Xorg -nolisten tcp :0 vt1 -keeptty -auth /tmp/serverauth.4mFBlelDHO
1747 lujun99+  0.9 fcitx

pmap命令

使用命令 pmap $pid 可以查看 $pid 这个进程及其依赖库的内存占用量(单位为K)

pmap $$
14931:   /bin/bash
000056317f317000    820K r-x-- bash
000056317f5e4000     12K r---- bash
000056317f5e7000     16K rw--- bash
000056317f5eb000     52K rw---   [ anon ]
0000563181464000    264K rw---   [ anon ]
00007f3ea01b5000   6036K r---- locale-archive
00007f3ea079a000      8K rw---   [ anon ]
00007f3ea079c000    416K r-x-- libncursesw.so.6.1
00007f3ea0804000   2044K ----- libncursesw.so.6.1
00007f3ea0a03000     20K r---- libncursesw.so.6.1
00007f3ea0a08000      4K rw--- libncursesw.so.6.1
00007f3ea0a09000    136K r---- libc-2.28.so
00007f3ea0a2b000   1324K r-x-- libc-2.28.so
00007f3ea0b76000    304K r---- libc-2.28.so
00007f3ea0bc2000      4K ----- libc-2.28.so
00007f3ea0bc3000     16K r---- libc-2.28.so
00007f3ea0bc7000      8K rw--- libc-2.28.so
00007f3ea0bc9000     16K rw---   [ anon ]
00007f3ea0bcd000      4K r---- libdl-2.28.so
00007f3ea0bce000      4K r-x-- libdl-2.28.so
00007f3ea0bcf000      4K r---- libdl-2.28.so
00007f3ea0bd0000      4K r---- libdl-2.28.so
00007f3ea0bd1000      4K rw--- libdl-2.28.so
00007f3ea0bd2000    268K r-x-- libreadline.so.7.0
00007f3ea0c15000   2048K ----- libreadline.so.7.0
00007f3ea0e15000     12K r---- libreadline.so.7.0
00007f3ea0e18000     24K rw--- libreadline.so.7.0
00007f3ea0e1e000     12K rw---   [ anon ]
00007f3ea0e67000      8K r---- ld-2.28.so
00007f3ea0e69000    124K r-x-- ld-2.28.so
00007f3ea0e88000     32K r---- ld-2.28.so
00007f3ea0e90000      4K r---- ld-2.28.so
00007f3ea0e91000      4K rw--- ld-2.28.so
00007f3ea0e92000      4K rw---   [ anon ]
00007ffe6c74a000    132K rw---   [ stack ]
00007ffe6c78f000     12K r----   [ anon ]
00007ffe6c792000      8K r-x--   [ anon ]
 total            14212K

如果觉得pmap使用单位为K不好看,也可以让它跟 numfmt 命令结合

pmap $$ |numfmt --header=1 --field 2-2 --to=iec --from iec
15514:   /bin/bash
00005599578b7000    820K r-x-- bash
0000559957b84000     12K r---- bash
0000559957b87000     16K rw--- bash
0000559957b8b000     52K rw---   [ anon ]
000055995938e000    264K rw---   [ anon ]
00007fcb2194e000    5.9M r---- locale-archive
00007fcb21f33000    8.0K rw---   [ anon ]
00007fcb21f35000    416K r-x-- libncursesw.so.6.1
00007fcb21f9d000    2.0M ----- libncursesw.so.6.1
00007fcb2219c000     20K r---- libncursesw.so.6.1
00007fcb221a1000    4.0K rw--- libncursesw.so.6.1
00007fcb221a2000    136K r---- libc-2.28.so
00007fcb221c4000    1.3M r-x-- libc-2.28.so
00007fcb2230f000    304K r---- libc-2.28.so
00007fcb2235b000    4.0K ----- libc-2.28.so
00007fcb2235c000     16K r---- libc-2.28.so
00007fcb22360000    8.0K rw--- libc-2.28.so
00007fcb22362000     16K rw---   [ anon ]
00007fcb22366000    4.0K r---- libdl-2.28.so
00007fcb22367000    4.0K r-x-- libdl-2.28.so
00007fcb22368000    4.0K r---- libdl-2.28.so
00007fcb22369000    4.0K r---- libdl-2.28.so
00007fcb2236a000    4.0K rw--- libdl-2.28.so
00007fcb2236b000    268K r-x-- libreadline.so.7.0
00007fcb223ae000    2.0M ----- libreadline.so.7.0
00007fcb225ae000     12K r---- libreadline.so.7.0
00007fcb225b1000     24K rw--- libreadline.so.7.0
00007fcb225b7000     12K rw---   [ anon ]
00007fcb22600000    8.0K r---- ld-2.28.so
00007fcb22602000    124K r-x-- ld-2.28.so
00007fcb22621000     32K r---- ld-2.28.so
00007fcb22629000    4.0K r---- ld-2.28.so
00007fcb2262a000    4.0K rw--- ld-2.28.so
00007fcb2262b000    4.0K rw---   [ anon ]
00007ffd184e9000    132K rw---   [ stack ]
00007ffd1859b000     12K r----   [ anon ]
00007ffd1859e000    8.0K r-x--   [ anon ]
 total               14M